Photo Slideshow
See all of the photos from this story
Download PDF
Download a printable PDF version of this article



By Aaron Hoover


Modern medicine has defeated a lot of bogeymen, but it remains locked in a war of attrition with an age-old nemesis: infection.

Nationwide, hospital care workers confront about 1.7 million healthcare-related infections annually — and lose about 99,000 patients to them, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. That’s more than double the fatalities tied to auto wrecks every year.

What’s worse, medicine’s main weapons are flawed or weakening. Disinfectants are impossible to apply everywhere, inevitably leaving spots for bacteria to grow. Chemical controls, such as coated implants, can have dangerous side effects or harm the environment. Antibiotics, one-time miracle cures, are losing their punch to genetically resistant bacteria.

But common menaces such as Staphylococcus aureus, as well as more dangerous cousins such as “flesh eating” methicillin-resistant staph — commonly known by the initials MRSA — may soon face a new barrier.

Ironically, it is inspired by a fearsome flesh eater of its own kind: the shark.

Conventional controls aim to kill bacteria. Tapping the discoveries of a University of Florida materials science and engineering researcher, UF biotechnology spin-off Sharklet Technologies has a radically different approach. The Alachua-based company seeks to discourage bacteria from colonizing surfaces in hospitals and medical devices using a microscopic pattern modeled on the skin of the ocean’s most notorious predator.

Sharklet is gearing up to sell what it calls “engineered surfaces” that, laboratory tests show, ward off not only staph and Escherichia coli, but also the more dangerous MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

“We believe we will have hygienic surface covers on the market this year,” says Sharklet Technologies CEO Joe Bagan. “We’re working on different medical devices to put our pattern on, and it’s going to be a little longer for those. Maybe a couple of years.”


The latest weapon in the war on bacteria didn’t spring from a medical laboratory. Instead, it is rooted in materials science and engineering Professor Tony Brennan’s efforts to solve a seemingly unrelated problem: how to keep algae from coating the hulls of submarines and ships.

Some people are lucky enough to have great ideas. For Brennan, it was more a matter of asking a great question.

Brennan remembers the day well. He was visiting the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Oahu in 2002 as part of his Navy-sponsored research. Convinced he could stop tiny algal spores from attaching by using rows of microscopic channels, he had eagerly awaited a look at experimental samples previously submerged in the harbor. But the results were abysmal, with the samples coming out of the water festooned with algae.

He and a handful of colleagues were watching an algae-coated nuclear submarine leave port when the question popped into his head.

“The submarine looked like a big whale lumbering out of the harbor,” Brennan says. “I asked, ‘Do whales foul?’ And everyone said, ‘yeah, whales are heavily fouled.’ So I started asking the question, ‘which marine and freshwater animals don’t foul?’”

He couldn’t get the question answered to his satisfaction that day. But follow-up research revealed that of all big marine animals, sharks remain most glisteningly smooth.

Brennan spent much of his career engineering new biomaterials for dental implants. He asked a colleague at the Florida Institute of Technology, Geoffrey Swain, to take an impression of a shark skin using a common silicone material. Like an impression for an ordinary tooth crown, it provided a negative imprint — in this case, a small, but visible pattern of rounded-off, diamond like, scales. (Many people believe sharks don’t have scales. In fact, the creatures’ scales are very small. They are known as placoid scales, or dermal denticles.)

Each scale was made up of seven tiny ribs. Brennan used a special tool, an optical profilometer, to measure the scales’ corresponding roughness. To his surprise, the ribs’ width-to-height ratios closely matched one of his mathematical models for roughness — one that he had estimated would discourage algae spores from settling.

At the time, Brennan believed the spores would have a negative reaction to surface roughness features measured in a handful of microns. The shark scale ribs were far bigger. So he shrunk the sharkskin rib pattern by a factor of 20, separating each rib by two to five microns. Tapping a process similar to the one used to make computer chips, he next fabricated thousands of these tiny “riblet” patterns on plastic.

He plunged the plastic into algae-laced seawater, waited an hour and pulled it out.

“The first time we tested it,” Brennan says, “we had an 85-percent reduction in the settlement of green algae.”


It was just one small test with just one type of fouling organism, but the results were exciting. That’s because algae and its ilk are major problems not only for the Navy but for all shippers. Fouled vessels have more drag as they move through water, slowing them and cutting into their fuel efficiency. The Navy estimates fouled hulls use 15 to 30 percent more fuel than clean ones, raising its fuel bill by tens of millions of dollars.

Following in the footsteps of shipbuilders since antiquity, the Navy and commercial shipping lines have fought the problem with copper-based paint. But pollution and cost concerns spurred the Navy to look for more environmentally friendly, less expensive solutions.

With the Office of Naval Research’s continued sponsorship, Brennan set about confirming and expanding his results while also seeking to understand the underlying mechanism. He applied for his first patent in 2004. Several years and at least $1 million later — the Florida High Technology Corridor Council has also been a supporter — Brennan has confirmed that his pattern resists not only green algae but also some varieties of barnacles. He has received two patents, has applications for several more patents under consideration and continues to work toward testing the pattern on real-life ship hulls.

Meanwhile, the research has also expanded in a vastly different direction. One of the fouling organisms that Brennan sought to discourage was the tubeworm. Tubeworms need bacteria to settle. So, in the spring of 2005, he asked an undergraduate at work in his laboratory to grow some bacteria on the Sharklet™ pattern.

A few weeks later, Mathew Blackburn reported back: He couldn’t do it. The E. coli bacteria would not attach. Brennan assigned two graduate students to work with Blackburn, but the team could coax the E. coli to grow only up to the side of the pattern.

It wasn’t until Brennan read Blackburn’s final report that the idea dawned on him: Perhaps the pattern could do more than ward off organisms that go after ships. Maybe it could discourage those bad bacteria that target people.

“He thought he was failing, and when I got his report and looked at it, it was like, ‘Holy smokes!’” Brennan says. “This could be very interesting.”


Marine fouling organisms and bacteria are very different life forms. But the two also share important similarities, Brennan says. Both can move, and both put down adhesive pads when they first stick to a surface. Green algae and many bacteria also seem to appreciate company. They take hold singly or in small groups, then seek to establish large colonies.

Like other life forms, Brennan says, bacteria and fouling organisms seek the path of least resistance. He believes the Sharklet pattern discourages colonization because it requires too much energy to put down roots. The consequence: The organisms decide to keep house hunting. With enough surface protected, the theory goes, they die or become less of a threat.

Whatever the mechanism, the Sharklet pattern works — in laboratory tests, at least.
The Navy’s interests were confined to fouling, so Brennan turned to UF’s extensive medical resources to pursue the medical applications.

In 2007, he founded Sharklet Technologies, based at UF’s Sid Martin Biotechnology Development Incubator. There, Brennan chairs the company’s scientific advisory board.

Brennan’s and the company’s tests reveal that the pattern is remarkably effective at delaying colonization from staph, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and other pathogens. Bagan, Sharklet Technologies’ CEO, says the independent infectious disease laboratory also found a “statistically significant” difference in the survival of MRSA and VRE bacteria in short time trials.

Sharklet Technologies’ time-lapse images tell the tale graphically.

Bacterial colonies grow steadily on a smooth surface over a period of three weeks, whereas they seem to struggle to get established on the Sharklet pattern. By day 21, bacterial films turn 77 percent of the smooth surface bright red —
versus 35 percent of the Sharklet pattern.

As promising as the results have been, the pattern has yet to be tested in a real medical setting. But that’s about to change.

Bagan says Sharklet Technologies has cleared all the major hurdles in an effort to test adhesive-backed versions of the pattern on common hospital surfaces at a large California hospital. Technicians, he says, have already determined the surfaces most likely to contain large bacterial colonies. Known as “high-touch” surfaces, they include nursing call buttons, bed rail control panels and touch-screen cardiac monitor screens. The company plans to apply the adhesive-backed Sharklet pattern to these surfaces and then monitor them for colonization.

Down the road, Sharklet Technologies also hopes to cover and test medical devices and instruments. Bagan says that because the pattern is not a chemical coating and does not introduce any new substances, it probably will not require clinical trials, but some safety trials may be needed.

Whatever the hurdles, the market is huge. The CDC estimates that 32 percent of all healthcare-related infections are tied to urinary tract infections, often stemming from urinary catheters. If the Sharklet pattern could make catheters safer, that alone would have a huge impact.

Brennan, for his part, is eager to gauge his invention’s appeal.

“I am anxious to see this thing put out there because once you put it on the market, you really get a test,” he says. “The market will determine viability.”



related link:

豆奶视频app下载污 卡哇伊app官网 Huluwaapp官网 梦露直播app下载污 红楼直播app下载iOS 抖阴app官网 泡芙app官网 十里桃花直播app下载iOS 卡哇伊直播app官网 东京视频app下载污 粉色app下载iOS 麻豆传媒视频app官网 月夜直播app下载污 草莓视频app官网 秀儿直播app官网 蝶恋花app下载污 芭乐app下载污 享爱app官网 大象视频app官网 花姿直播app下载iOS lutubeapp下载iOS 豌豆直播app下载污 快狐短视频app下载污 粉色视频app下载iOS 食色短视频app下载iOS 蜜柚app下载iOS 内裤直播app下载iOS 夜猫视频app下载污 光棍影院app下载iOS 蓝颜app下载iOS 小奶狗视频app官网 花仙子直播app官网 尤蜜app官网 小草莓app下载iOS 媚妹秀app下载iOS 成版人快手app下载污 麻豆传媒映画app下载iOS 夜猫视频app下载污 朵朵直播app官网 小怪兽app下载iOS 彩云直播app下载污 蝶恋花app下载iOS avgoapp下载iOS 红颜app下载iOS 蜜柚app官网 豆奶抖音短视频app官网 圣女直播app下载iOS fi11含羞草app官网 黄瓜视频app官网 香蕉app下载iOS 云上花直播app官网 蘑菇视频app下载污 豆奶视频app下载污 初恋直播app下载iOS 啪嗒视频app下载污 丝瓜app下载iOS 柠檬直播app下载iOS 秀色小抖音app下载iOS 幸福宝app下载iOS 成人快手app下载iOS 九尾狐视频app下载污 JAV名优馆app下载手机版 成版人快手app官网 雨燕直播app官网 成版人茄子视频app下载iOS 含羞草app下载污 豆奶视频app官网 米老鼠直播app下载污 盘她s直播app官网 蓝精灵直播app下载iOS 91视频app官网 91香蕉视频app下载iOS 黄瓜直播app官网 十里桃花直播app下载污 橘子视频app官网 大象视频app官网 依恋直播app下载污 JAV名优馆app下载iOS 米老鼠直播app官网 s8视频app官网 橙子视频app官网 小奶狗app下载iOS 薰衣草直播app官网 花姿app官网 9uuapp下载iOS 套路直播app下载污 金鱼直播app下载污 d2天堂app官网 骚虎直播app下载污 快狐短视频app官网 夜遇直播号app官网 抖阴视频app官网 香蕉直播app下载污 BB直播app下载污 遇见直播app官网 色秀直播app下载污 草莓视频app官网 粉色视频app下载iOS 美梦视频app官网 七仙女直播app官网 草鱼app下载iOS 猫咪软件app下载污 春水堂视频app下载iOS 恋人直播app下载iOS 云雨直播app下载污 香蕉app下载iOS 小酒窝直播app下载污 柚子直播app下载iOS 小狐仙app下载污 遇见直播app官网 水晶直播app下载iOS 葡萄视频app下载污 红娘直播app官网 茄子直播app官网 冈本app官网 盘她直播app官网 铁牛app下载iOS 合欢视频app下载iOS 草榴直播app下载污 污直播app官网 千层浪app官网 猫咪视频app下载iOS 樱桃app下载iOS 黄瓜视频app下载污 桃花直播app官网 花样视频app下载iOS 向日葵app下载iOS 成人直播app下载iOS 暗夜直播app官网 榴莲视频app官网 A头条app下载污 小狐仙app下载iOS 火辣直播app官网 圣女直播app下载iOS 含羞草视频app下载污 香蜜直播app下载污 柠檬视频app下载污 午夜神器app官网 左手视频app官网 菠萝蜜app下载iOS 福利直播app官网 小猪视频app下载iOS 一对一直播app下载iOS 香蕉直播app下载污 茄子直播app官网 芭乐视频app下载iOS 九尾狐直播app下载污 小奶狗视频app官网 千层浪直播app下载iOS 杏吧直播app官网 小狐仙app下载污 小仙女app官网 酷咪直播app下载污 成版人抖音富二代app下载iOS 享爱直播app官网 成人快手app下载污 BB直播app下载iOS 7秒鱼app下载iOS 秋葵视频app下载污 成人快手app下载iOS 午夜神器app下载iOS 逗趣直播app官网 一对一直播app下载iOS 蓝颜app下载污 西瓜直播app下载污 花心视频app下载污 草莓直播app官网 花秀神器app下载污 蓝颜app官网 草榴短视频app官网 豆奶抖音短视频app下载iOS 樱桃视频app下载污 咪咪直播app下载iOS 富二代f2短视频app官网 抖阴直播app下载iOS 香蕉app下载iOS 美岁直播app下载iOS 爱爱视频app下载污 爱爱视频app官网 享爱app下载污 ML聚合app下载手机版 梦幻直播app下载污 久草视频app官网 抖阴直播app下载污 小草莓app下载污 迷雾直播app下载iOS 暖暖直播app官网 盘她app官网 午夜直播app下载污 青青草app下载iOS 草榴视频app下载污 月夜直播app下载iOS 樱桃直播app下载污 后宫视频app官网 Avboboapp官网 心上人直播app官网 91香蕉app下载污 月夜直播app下载iOS 彩云直播app下载污 七秒鱼app官网 后宫视频app官网 夜猫视频app下载污 向日葵app官网 iavboboapp官网 米老鼠直播app下载iOS 美梦视频app官网 樱花雨直播app官网 葫芦娃app下载污 金鱼直播app官网 泡芙短视频app官网 富二代f2抖音app官网 泡泡直播app下载污 猫咪视频app官网 花秀神器app下载iOS 金鱼直播app下载iOS 兔子直播app下载iOS 蓝颜app下载iOS 青草视频app下载污 豌豆直播app下载iOS 富二代短视频app下载iOS 花秀神器app官网 BB直播app下载污 丝瓜视频app下载iOS 云雨直播app官网 小蝌蚪视频app官网 黄瓜视频人app下载污 媚妹秀app官网 可乐视频app官网 抖阴app官网 茶馆视频app官网 夜猫视频app官网 黄色直播软件app下载污 黄页荔枝app下载污 年轻人片app官网 黄瓜直播app下载污 午夜神器app官网 和欢视频app官网 榴莲视频app下载污 夜猫视频app下载iOS Avnightapp下载iOS 小姐姐直播app下载iOS 小猪视频app官网 烟花巷直播app下载iOS 草鱼app下载污 小蝌蚪app下载iOS 米老鼠直播app官网 ML聚合app下载手机版 大菠萝app官网 fi11含羞草app官网 草鱼app下载iOS 美岁直播app下载污 云上花直播app官网 花秀神器app下载iOS 小v视频app下载iOS 福利直播app下载iOS 七仙女直播app官网 小狐仙app官网 ML聚合app下载手机版 月光宝盒直播app官网 可乐视频app下载iOS 月光直播app下载污 最污直播app下载iOS 草榴短视频app下载iOS MM直播app下载iOS 快狐短视频app官网 小蝌蚪app官网 大秀直播app下载污 小米粒直播app下载手机版 f2富二代app下载iOS 小蝌蚪视频app下载iOS 夜夜直播app官网 咪咪直播app下载iOS 烟花直播app官网 香蕉app官网 幸福宝app官网 恋夜秀场app官网 小宝贝直播app下载污 微杏app官网 鲍鱼视频app官网 东京视频app官网 桃花app官网 香蕉直播app下载iOS 年华直播app下载iOS 蓝精灵直播app下载iOS 黄瓜直播app官网 梦鹿直播app下载污 花心app下载污 夏娃直播app下载iOS 兔子直播app官网 猛虎视频app下载iOS MM直播app官网 橙子直播app下载污 Huluwaapp下载iOS 快猫视频app官网 番茄社区app下载污 泡泡直播app下载污 橘子直播app下载污 花姿直播app下载iOS 东京视频app下载iOS 最污直播app官网 美梦视频app官网 雨云直播app下载污 樱桃直播app下载污 梦露直播app下载iOS 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app下载iOS avgoapp官网 依恋直播app下载iOS 免费黃色直播app官网 遇见直播app下载污 豆奶短视频app下载iOS 烟花直播app下载iOS 黄瓜直播app下载iOS 含羞草视频app下载污 蓝精灵直播app官网 Avboboapp官网 污直播app官网 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app官网 咪哒app下载污 野花视频app下载污 7秒鱼直播app官网 富二代app官网 菠萝蜜app官网 成版人快手app官网 啪嗒视频app下载iOS 云上花直播app下载iOS 草榴直播app下载污 bobo直播app下载iOS 茄子直播app下载iOS 豆奶抖音短视频app官网 小猪视频app下载污 套路直播app下载iOS 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app官网 年华直播app下载iOS 月亮直播app下载iOS 小狐仙直播app下载iOS 花心直播app下载iOS 初恋视频app下载污 夜遇直播号app下载污 成版人抖音app下载iOS 蘑菇视频app下载污 荔枝app下载iOS 橙子视频app官网 黄瓜直播app官网 IAVBOBOapp官网 媚妹秀app官网 抖阴直播app下载iOS 夜猫视频app下载iOS 骚虎直播app官网 成人快手app下载iOS 豆奶短视频app官网 秀色小抖音app下载iOS 盘他直播app官网 樱桃app下载iOS 豆奶app下载污 食色短视频app官网 夜猫视频app官网 夜猫视频app官网 污软件app官网 月光宝盒直播app下载污 陌秀直播app官网 么么直播app下载iOS 向日葵app下载污 泡芙app下载污 年轻人片app下载iOS 茄子app官网 蝴蝶直播app官网 9uuapp下载iOS 樱花雨直播app下载iOS 麻豆传媒直播app下载污 年华直播app下载iOS 逗趣直播app下载污 蜜柚app官网 午夜神器app下载iOS 盘他直播app下载iOS 卡哇伊app官网 小怪兽直播app官网 荔枝视频app下载iOS 水晶直播app下载iOS 快狐app官网 蝴蝶直播app下载iOS 小小影视app下载污 比心直播app下载污 夜魅直播app官网 媚妹秀app下载iOS 番茄社区app官网 红楼直播app下载污 番茄直播app下载污 午夜直播间app下载污 彩云直播app下载iOS 月亮直播app下载iOS 彩云直播app官网 豆奶抖音短视频app下载污 草榴视频app下载iOS 木瓜视频app官网 小米粒直播app官网 梦鹿直播app官网 快猫app下载污 蜜蜂视频app下载iOS 麻豆传媒视频app下载iOS 杏吧直播app官网 梦鹿直播app官网 69视频app下载iOS 花友直播app官网 享爱直播app官网 蝶恋花app下载iOS 6房间视频直播app官网 番茄视频app下载iOS 小草视频app下载污 小草视频app官网 菠萝蜜app官网 快猫短视频app下载iOS AVBOBOapp下载iOS 向日葵视频app官网 花友直播app官网 IAVBOBOapp下载iOS 蝴蝶直播app下载污 小狐仙app官网 桃花直播app下载iOS 小奶狗app官网 樱花app下载污 桃花app官网 蓝精灵直播app下载污 咪哒直播app官网 香蕉视频app下载iOS 兔子直播app下载iOS 云上花app下载iOS Huluwaapp下载iOS 7秒鱼直播app下载iOS 蓝精灵直播app下载iOS 男人本色西瓜视频app官网 Huluwaapp下载iOS 橙子视频app官网 青青草app下载iOS 丝瓜视频污app官网 烟花直播app下载iOS 久草视频app官网 七秒鱼直播app下载iOS 蜜桃app官网 酷咪直播app下载iOS 男人本色西瓜视频app官网 花心直播app下载污 柠檬视频app官网 黄瓜直播app下载污 主播福利app官网 东京视频app下载iOS 樱桃直播app官网 芭乐app官网 黄页荔枝app官网 恋人直播app官网 迷雾直播app下载iOS 蓝精灵直播app下载污 69视频app下载iOS 花友直播app下载污 薰衣草直播app官网 粉色app官网 蘑菇视频app下载iOS 橘子视频app下载污 茄子视频app下载iOS 樱花视频app官网 啪嗒视频app下载iOS 探花直播app官网 草鱼app官网 丝瓜视频污app官网 恋人直播app官网 swag台湾app下载污 蓝精灵直播app下载iOS 米老鼠直播app下载污 豌豆直播app官网 牛牛视频app官网 iavboboapp官网 荔枝app下载污 遇见直播app下载iOS 性福宝app下载iOS 色秀直播app官网 iAVBOBOapp官网 丝瓜草莓视频app官网 花样视频app官网 卡哇伊app官网 压寨直播app官网 7秒鱼直播app官网 蝶恋花直播app官网 橘子视频app下载污 享爱app官网 小怪兽直播app官网 樱桃视频app官网 台湾swagapp官网 享受直播app下载iOS 富二代短视频app官网 杏吧直播app下载污 盘她s直播app下载污 香蕉直播app下载污 小猪视频app官网 AVnightapp下载污 圣女直播app下载iOS 十里桃花直播app官网 花秀神器app下载污 番茄视频app官网 大象视频app官网 咪哒直播app官网 菠萝蜜视频app下载iOS 小小影视app下载iOS 花心app官网 遇见直播app下载iOS 梦鹿直播app官网 台湾swagapp下载iOS 猫咪软件app下载污 咪哒app官网 BB直播app下载污 迷雾直播app官网 卡哇伊直播app下载iOS f2富二代app下载污 橘子视频app下载污 d2天堂app下载污 香草视频app下载污 免费黃色直播app官网 快猫app官网 合欢视频app官网 樱花app官网 依恋直播app下载iOS 逗趣直播app下载iOS 蘑菇视频app下载iOS 幸福宝app下载iOS 蜜桃app下载iOS f2富二代app下载iOS 黄瓜视频人app下载iOS 豆奶app官网 抖阴直播app下载污 大小姐直播app下载污 大西瓜视频app下载iOS 骚虎直播app下载iOS Huluwaapp下载iOS 彩云直播app下载污 盘他直播app下载污 红娘直播app下载iOS 夜猫视频app下载iOS 91视频app官网 小米粒直播app下载手机版 年轻人片app下载iOS 污直播app官网 污软件app下载iOS avgoapp官网 尤蜜视频app官网 swag视频app下载污 咪哒直播app下载污 富二代f2短视频app官网 依恋直播app官网 草榴短视频app官网 菠萝蜜视频app下载污 水果视频app下载iOS 老王视频app官网 烟花巷直播app下载污 芭乐app下载污 91香蕉视频app下载iOS 草莓直播app下载iOS 大秀直播app下载污 荔枝app下载iOS 性直播app官网 考拉直播app下载iOS 菠萝蜜视频app下载iOS 小奶猫app下载污 小狐仙视频app官网 茄子app下载iOS 花心app下载iOS 美梦视频app下载iOS 盘他直播app下载污 97豆奶视频app下载iOS 比心直播app下载污 午夜直播app官网 彩云直播app官网 樱花app官网 免费黃色直播app官网 恋人直播app下载污 香草成视频人app下载iOS health2app下载iOS JAV名优馆app下载手机版 香蜜直播app下载污 黄瓜视频人app下载污 花仙子直播app官网 f2富二代app下载iOS 梦幻直播app下载污 抖阴直播app下载污 月夜直播app下载iOS 小狐仙app官网 蜜柚app下载iOS 柠檬视频app官网 水仙直播app下载iOS 蜜蜂视频app官网 草榴视频app下载iOS 享爱直播app下载污 bobo直播app下载污 猛虎直播app下载污 樱花视频app下载污 花姿直播app官网 蝴蝶直播app下载iOS 夜猫视频app官网 米老鼠直播app下载污 蜜橙视频app下载污 抖阴视频app下载iOS 小猪视频app下载污 恋夜秀场app官网 夜狼直播app下载污 本色视频app官网 食色app下载污 笔芯直播app官网 花椒直播app官网 快狐短视频app下载iOS 直播盒子app下载污 火爆社区app下载iOS 小米粒直播app官网 性福宝app下载iOS 富二代f2抖音app官网 花姿直播app官网 套路直播app官网 主播福利app官网 春水堂app下载污 金屋藏娇直播间app下载iOS 薰衣草直播app官网 月夜直播app下载iOS 麻豆传媒映画app下载污 彩云直播app下载iOS 最污直播app官网 猛虎直播app下载iOS 梦幻直播app官网 宅男之家app官网 夏娃直播app官网 蝶恋花app官网 成人直播app官网 花心app官网 音色短视频app下载iOS 青青草app官网 小花螺直播app下载污 卡哇伊直播app下载iOS 小奶狗视频app官网 豆奶短视频app官网 69热app下载iOS 富二代app下载iOS 奶茶视频app官网 年轻人片app官网 含羞草实验研究所app下载iOS 春水堂视频app下载iOS 小优app官网 探花直播app官网 7秒鱼直播app下载iOS 葫芦娃app下载污 彩云直播app下载iOS A头条app下载污 久草视频app下载iOS 春水堂视频app下载污 桃花直播app下载污 丝瓜视频污app官网 ML聚合app官网 彩云直播app下载iOS 硬汉视频app官网 九尾狐视频app下载iOS 水晶直播app官网 彩云直播app下载iOS 含羞草app下载iOS 水蜜桃app官网 小宝贝直播app官网 蜜橙视频app下载污 快播破解app官网 葫芦娃视频app下载iOS 豆奶app下载污 盘她直播app下载iOS 小蝌蚪app官网 彩云直播app下载iOS 红高粱直播app官网 JOJO直播app官网 fi11含羞草app下载iOS 久草视频app下载iOS 花姿直播app官网 麻豆传媒映画app下载iOS 污直播app官网 含羞草视频app下载污 鲍鱼视频app官网 秋葵视频app下载污 花友直播app官网 秀色小抖音app官网 免费黃色直播app官网 蓝颜app下载污 花狐狸直播app官网 圣女直播app下载iOS 菠萝蜜app下载iOS 花心视频app官网 蜜柚直播app下载污 彩云直播app官网 小宝贝直播app下载污 宅男之家app下载iOS 荔枝app官网 成版人茄子视频app下载污 小草视频app下载污 香蕉视频app官网 夜遇直播号app下载污 豆奶视频app官网 含羞草视频app下载污 含羞草app下载iOS 樱花视频app官网 茶馆视频app下载iOS 红娘直播app下载污 萝卜视频app官网 花粥直播app下载iOS 茄子直播app官网 青草视频app官网 微杏app下载iOS 大西瓜视频app下载iOS 盘她s直播app下载污 卖肉直播app下载iOS bobo直播app下载iOS 花心app下载iOS 望月app下载iOS 浪浪视频app下载iOS 黄页荔枝app下载iOS 梦幻直播app下载iOS 午夜直播app下载污 成版人音色短视频app官网 斗艳直播app下载iOS 考拉直播app官网 初见直播app官网 粉色视频app下载污 泡芙app下载iOS 黄色直播软件app官网 水果视频app下载污 芭乐app下载污 媚妹秀app下载iOS 葫芦娃app官网 繁花直播app下载污 花友直播app下载iOS 朵朵直播app下载iOS 斗艳直播app官网 lutubeapp下载手机版 男人本色西瓜视频app下载iOS 蜜桃app官网 春水堂app官网 恋夜秀场app官网 红娘直播app官网 棉花糖直播app官网 啪嗒视频app下载iOS 七秒鱼app官网 盘她直播app下载iOS 花心app下载污 合欢视频app官网 豆奶app下载污 恋夜秀场app下载污 盘他app官网 秀色直播app下载污 花姬直播app下载iOS 食色app官网 丝瓜app下载污 妖妖直播app下载污 火爆社区app官网 斗艳直播app下载iOS 猫咪视频app官网 鸭脖视频app下载污 遇见直播app下载iOS 青青草app官网 小蝌蚪视频app下载污 雨云直播app下载iOS 麻豆传媒映画app下载iOS d2天堂app下载污 番茄直播app下载污 蝶恋花直播app下载污 荔枝app官网 s8视频app官网 微杏app官网 粉色视频app下载污 遇见直播app下载污 抖阴视频app官网 年华直播app官网 逗趣直播app下载污 91直播app官网 丝瓜视频app下载iOS 小怪兽app下载iOS 仙人掌app官网 云雨直播app下载iOS health2app官网 91香蕉视频app下载污 红娘直播app官网 金屋藏娇直播间app下载污 蜜桃app下载污 小公主直播app下载污 含羞草实验研究所app官网 丝瓜app下载iOS 青草视频app下载iOS 小小影视app下载iOS 泡泡直播app官网 7秒鱼app官网 光棍影院app下载iOS 草莓app下载污 直播盒子app下载污 91香蕉视频app官网 小怪兽app官网 小蝌蚪视频app官网 野花视频app下载iOS 雨燕直播app官网 趣播app官网 Kitty直播app下载iOS 含羞草视频app下载污 夜遇直播号app官网 夜狼直播app官网 趣播app下载iOS 冈本视频app官网 媚妹秀app官网 仙人掌app官网 冈本视频app下载污 七秒鱼直播app官网 bobo直播app官网 91香蕉app下载污 柠檬视频app下载污 小狐仙直播app官网 梦幻直播app下载iOS 橘子视频app官网 health2app官网 木瓜视频app官网 小天仙直播app下载手机版 柠檬直播app下载iOS 黄瓜app下载iOS 一对一直播app下载污 小宝贝直播app下载污 猫咪软件app官网 夜猫视频app下载iOS s8视频app官网 硬汉视频app下载iOS 杏吧直播app下载污 比心直播app下载iOS Avboboapp官网 蓝精灵直播app官网 花心社区app下载iOS 豆奶短视频app官网 色秀直播app官网 硬汉视频app下载iOS 冈本视频app下载iOS ML聚合app下载iOS 小蝌蚪app下载污 大西瓜视频app下载污 米老鼠直播app官网 茄子视频app下载污 香蕉视频app官网 圣女直播app官网 千层浪直播app下载污 麻豆传媒映画app下载iOS 樱花视频app下载污 小公主直播app官网 花心视频app官网 蘑菇视频app下载iOS 望月直播app下载iOS 花椒直播app下载污 盘他直播app下载污 斗艳直播app下载iOS 抖阴直播app下载污 朵朵直播app下载iOS 含羞草app官网 恋人直播app下载iOS 杏花直播app官网 豆奶app官网 比心直播app官网 小怪兽app官网 草榴短视频app下载iOS 花姬直播app下载iOS 小喵直播app下载iOS BB直播app下载iOS 富二代f2抖音app下载iOS 咪哒直播app下载污 香蕉直播app下载iOS 皮卡丘直播app下载iOS 小可爱app官网 BB直播app下载iOS 鲍鱼视频app下载iOS 雨云直播app下载iOS 杏花直播app下载iOS 媚妹秀app下载iOS 豆奶抖音短视频app下载iOS 花姬直播app下载污 铁牛视频app下载污 享爱app下载iOS Avboboapp下载iOS 花心社区app官网 麻豆传媒视频app官网 仙人掌app下载污 樱花直播app下载iOS 大西瓜视频app下载污 红颜app官网 趣播app官网 繁花直播app官网 初恋直播app下载污 樱花app下载污 夜遇直播号app下载污 金鱼直播app下载污 圣女直播app官网 浪浪视频app下载iOS 香草成视频人app下载iOS 朵朵直播app下载污 和欢视频app官网 趣播app下载污 小姐姐直播app下载iOS 嘿嘿连载app下载污 啪嗒视频app下载iOS 色秀直播app官网 暗夜直播app下载污 免费黃色直播app官网 9uuapp下载污 可乐视频app下载iOS 九尾狐视频app下载iOS 抖阴app下载iOS 奶茶视频app官网 媚妹秀app官网 lutubeapp官网 成人直播app官网 小v视频app官网 Huluwaapp下载污 恋人直播app下载污 小怪兽app官网 七秒鱼app下载iOS 小可爱app官网 十里桃花直播app下载iOS 91直播app下载iOS 成版人音色短视频app官网 享爱直播app官网 鲍鱼视频app官网 JAV名优馆app官网 酷咪直播app下载污 小优app下载iOS 成版人短视频app下载iOS 千层浪视频app下载污 黄色直播软件app官网 f2富二代app官网 月亮直播app下载污 骚虎直播app下载污 萝卜视频app下载iOS 麻豆视频app下载iOS 91直播app下载iOS 含羞草实验研究所app下载iOS 花秀神器app下载污 尤蜜app官网 斗艳直播app官网 成版人音色短视频app下载iOS 蓝精灵直播app下载iOS 成版人抖音富二代app下载iOS 抖阴直播app下载iOS 小酒窝直播app下载iOS 小奶狗视频app下载iOS 猫咪软件app下载污 MM直播app官网 豆奶短视频app下载iOS JAV名优馆app下载iOS 荔枝app官网 花粥直播app官网 萝卜视频app官网 内裤直播app官网 fi11含羞草app下载iOS 老王视频app下载iOS 成版人音色短视频app下载iOS 合欢视频app下载iOS 夜猫视频app下载iOS 微杏app下载污 水晶直播app官网 可乐视频app官网 男人本色西瓜视频app官网 夜狼直播app官网 一对一直播app下载iOS 黄瓜视频人app下载iOS 铁牛视频app下载污 樱桃app官网 小喵直播app官网 花狐狸直播app官网 西瓜直播app下载iOS 麻豆传媒app下载污 探花直播app下载iOS 雨燕直播app官网 男人本色西瓜视频app官网 丝瓜app下载污 芭乐app官网 小公主直播app官网 男人本色西瓜视频app下载iOS 咪哒直播app下载iOS 小小影视app下载污 番茄社区app下载污 樱桃直播app下载污 木瓜app官网 内裤直播app下载污 陌秀直播app下载iOS 番茄直播app下载iOS f2富二代app官网 豌豆直播app官网 橘子直播app下载污 微杏app官网 荔枝视频app官网 橘子直播app下载污